|Guidelines for World Evangelism||George Gurganus, editor|
|Contents | Foreword | Chapters: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | Personalia|
A question frequently asked by students who have completed their first survey of the Old Testament is: Why did God wait so long before fulfilling the promise He made to Abraham?1 If all mankind has need of the cleansing blood of Jesus Christ, why did God not send Him to the earth 2000 years earlier? The most reasonable answer seems to be that God was waiting until the time was right2. . . until everything was ready. Though God is not willing that any should perish3, He evidently recognizes that there are essential perimeters of time and preparation that cannot be casually violated.
God's dealings with man are fundamentally and thoroughly permeated with evidence of planning and preparation. Christ was destined before the foundation of the world4 but was made manifest only when God's intricate plan was carefully unfolded during the course of history.
It is, therefore, with this understanding of God's attitude about adherence to systematic and conscious planning that the following suggestions are made. It is not the writer's intention to place a stumbling block before the anxious beginner, to suggest that all prospective missionaries need the same preparation, nor to insinuate that the reader is not already partially or fully prepared. Rather, the twofold purpose of this chapter is to help the conscientious candidate by supplying guidelines to aid him in the identification of his strong and weak points and also to offer suggestions for capitalizing on the former and shoring up the latter.
One may be keenly aware that the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control5 without having any accurate knowledge of his own productivity in these areas. For example, if one has never been face to face with a hate producing situation, he may not fully comprehend his own capacity for loving. Likewise, if he has never become aware of the extremes of sorrow and strife he may not know his own potential for radiating joy and peace.
T. Stanley Soltau asserts that although the spiritual power needed on the mission field is not unlike the spiritual power needed at home, the mission field may be much more demanding due to "the absence of any of the helpful influences and spiritual 'props' which are so common and so accessible at home."6 At first, the missionary may not be ship of the conscious of the fact that he misses the fellow home town church, misses the stimulating sermons of a favorite preacher, misses the encouragement of family and friends, or even the familiarity of traditional surroundings; but, as time passes the absence of these "Props" can become catastrophic.
The missionary's spiritual strength is the most significant armament he will carry with him into the mission field. It will serve as a shock absorber against the impact of frustration, mistakes, weaknesses, and, in general, the manifold darts of Satan. This spiritual strength is a reservoir that can not only see him through times of stress but supply him with the power necessary for effective evangelism and service.
Superficial, erratic, or casual attachment to God, Christ and the Holy Spirit, will not satisfy the demands of an exacting mission field. Of course, it will not prove satisfactory at home either, but the failure will be more obvious and perhaps damaging in the context of a strange environment. Therefore the prospective missionary should pay close attention to the development of his own spirituality. There are at least three important areas that bear directly on one's spirituality and a brief look at each of these might help in evaluating and improving spiritual growth.
First, attention should be given to devotion. Cook suggests that the development of good devotional habits is essential for training in spirituality.7 Devotional habits would include Bible reading for communion with God (as opposed to sermon or class preparation where the aim is the development of pre-determined concepts rather than openness to the communication of God), meditation, prayer, and combinations of these kinds of activities. The harried missionary, unless he has already built up a strong devotional habit, will not likely find the time and opportunity for the development of such habits while on the field.
Perhaps the most unrealistic concept harbored by many people is the idea that once a person goes into a mission field, he. will automatically increase his spiritual activities and development. On the contrary, the absence of brethren who might encourage, the time consuming problems of living in a strange culture, and the overall pressures of foreign work can easily have a negative effect on one's spiritual development. So, do not wait for the field experience, to begin developing spiritually! Start now and build up devotional habits that will help overcome the negative influences of the field.
2. Bible Training.
Second, the missionary must realize that he is likely going to a tribe or nation that already has a long history of religious activity. Their own traditional religion may contain a wealth of merit. They may have high moral values, deep faith, sacrificial giving, and a host of elements worthy of admiration and praise. They may even be worshippers of Jehovah, and who have been calling on his name for many years. Why then is a missionary needed? Obviously, he is needed only if he has something to offer which they do not yet have and, under the best of the above circumstances, the only thing they may lack is accurate truth.
Jack P. Lewis, of the Harding Graduate School of Religion, insists that the missionary needs a great deal more than, "a few scriptures and the gift of gab." He points out the need for missionary scholars who know Greek and Hebrew and who can, therefore, be masters of scripture as well as fund raisers and public relations experts. Certainly, the missionary should be adept in wielding the sword of the spirit.8
The amount of formal Bible training a prospective missionary should have "I vary from individual to individual. Those engaged in Bible translation, in depth Bible instruction, or confrontation with false teaching may need a great deal more formal training than the evangelist to a receptive preliterate society where, temporarily at least, the simple gospel message is sufficient.
However, even the vocational missionary who plans to specialize in the area of his vocational training must not short-change himself in the matter of Bible study. Harold Cook points out that every doctor, nurse, teacher, typist, etc., should also be a capable evangelist.9 There may be many great services to perform along the way but the ultimate goal of mission work is reconciling men to God through Jesus Christ10 and every missionary should be prepared to persuade men to be reconciled.
There are many institutions which have been designed to provide students with adequate Bible training. There are nondegree programs, Bible chairs, liberal arts colleges, graduate degree programs, and special short term seminars and conferences. The prospective missionary should evaluate any program critically and try to enroll in one which provides a combination of pure doctrine and sound scholarship.
The number of months or years of study needed for a particular individual will depend on his past training and experience as well as his future plans. However, there are few, if any, experienced missionaries who complain that they are over qualified in the area of Bible knowledge. Therefore, the prospective missionary should not rush his training and preparation in this critical area. The fields may be white unto harvest and the laborers may be few, but a worker with a dun sickle is not the answer.
3. Interpersonal Relationships.
Spiritual growth, as suggested earlier, involves the production of certain types of fruit. By its nature this fruit cannot be produced except within the context of one's relationship with his fellow beings. Love for God cannot be genuine unless it is manifested in love for a brother.11 Joy cannot be complete unless our fellowship with others is perfected12 peace must prevail between brethren,13 and patience must be shown to all.14 The "fruit of the Spirit" scripture is concluded with these words, "If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit. Let us have no self-conceit, no provoking of one another, no envy of one another."15
Harold Cook writes that dissensions between missionaries cause most of the breakdowns in missionary ranks.16 Add to this the breakdowns in communication and fellowship between missionaries and local persons and these. will likely account for the remainder of whatever problems may exist. The argument between two siblings, a divorce between a husband and wife, or the wars between tribes or nations all reflect the difficulty man has in getting along with his fellow men.
Selflessness and consideration for others is central to Christianity and these virtues are especially important to successful mission work. Missionaries are not only human beings but they are humans who have voluntarily placed themselves under tremendous pressures. Culture shock, language shock, fatigue, and disappointment are but a few of the weights that plague the typical missionary. Far from home and the familiar cultural cues that generally offer him some support, the foreign missionary must rely almost entirely on his own spiritual reservoir. And though that reservoir is unlimited through participation in the Holy Spirit the missionary who has not exercised himself in drawing upon this source may stumble and fall when the real tests come.
Intimate involvement with others is perhaps the most spontaneous and natural means of developing a personality that is Christlike in its relationship to others. One's experiences with others can, at least, provide data as to his ability to develop satisfactory in-depth inter-personal relationships, provided he can be both objective and perceptive as he analyses himself.
Beyond this there is a wealth of helpful information in any number of well written books.17 Even more dynamic in impact would be participation in some form of group-dynamics experience under the guidance of a qualified Christian group leader. Study and experience in this area can not only increase one's sensitivity to others but also reveal one's own personal barriers which mitigate against satisfactory relationships with others.
Perhaps the greatest value of a study into interpersonal relationships is the insight gained about oneself. Such self study might help the prospective missionary in numerous ways. For example, if he determines that he is especially resourceful and self reliant with a talent for inspiring others to follow his lead, then he may look to a pioneer field where there are few structured programs, little supervision, and a need for effective leadership. On the other hand, if the prospective missionary finds himself to be an excellent follower, group oriented, and generally more comfortable when there are others around to help make major decisions, then he might be wise to seek a mission field where a good program has already been initiated and there is adequate supervision and direction.
This is just one example of a multitude of personal factors that can mean a great deal to the missionary. Does the work he visualizes demand more time than his family responsibilities will allow? Are there more responsibilities than he feels capable of assuming? Is there more or less freedom than his own personality needs? These and similar questions must be asked and then forthrightly answered. Then the prospective missionary can point himself toward a ministry that more nearly meets the demands of his own unique personality, through prayer and study modify his personality to take up any slack that might remain, and enter the work with his own feet solidly planted and thus be in a position to interact successfully with others.
The prospective missionary who maintains an exemplary devotional life, is a true Bible scholar, and behaves with maturity and selflessness toward his fellow men, may not avoid all the dangers inherent in mission work but he certainly has a great deal working in his favor. Such an individual has obviously worked diligently to prepare himself and will likely be adding to that preparation daily.
It may be impossible to truly separate spiritual development from intellectual development because each may contribute significantly to the other. However, at least analytically, a distinction is not only possible but essential for systematic study and evaluation. The following intellectual pursuits may influence spirituality but they are also ends in themselves which may prove invaluable to the missionary.
1. Training Programs.
The word "mission" comes from the Latin word missio and simply means to send. However, the full scope of the implications of "mission" is much more complex than this redundant definition might indicate. Why? When? Where? How should one be sent? These are the questions that every missionary in every age must ponder and attempt to answer, And woe to the missionary who takes it for granted that he knows the answers and never applies himself to a systematic search for the truth.
There is nothing more discouraging than to realize after many years of missionary labor that much of that labor was in vain due to distorted or erroneous ideas of the nature of "mission." And if, perhaps, there are irreconcilable differences of opinion concerning what constitutes true mission work, the individual missionary should at least be aware of the different ideas and thus in a better position to accurately determine his own views.
Perhaps, all too soon, this look into proper preparation will now meet with some challenges that may seem virtually insurmountable. This is due to the fact that a thorough understanding of mission will involve a lifetime of study and participation. There seems to be no honest way of telling the prospective missionary that he can first thoroughly prepare himself and then go into a mission field fully equipped.
The best preparation seems to be a combination of study and personal experience. Reading books and studying courses is good but after spending a few months or years on a mission field missionaries who re-read the books and re-examine the courses find that they really had not grasped all the implications until faced with the real situation. Does this mean that experience should precede study? God forbid! The prospective missionary should study as much as he can before going but he must realize that he cannot fully understand all that there. is to know just by engaging in either formal or informal study.
Perhaps a realistic approach to this lifetime of preparation would involve the necessary formal study interspersed with any number of simulated and actual field experiences. Such a program could include (a) informal reading and study, (b) formal study (undergraduate level), (3) local experiences in personal evangelism, (d) seminars or summer study programs where field experiences are simulated, (e) an apprenticeship on a mission. field, (f) additional formal study (graduate level), (g) and finally on the field training followed by full participation in a missionary enterprise.
Circumstances, personal needs, or any number of factors might mitigate against this exact sequence but, in general, it provides for that balance between theory and practice that can make both of these much more meaningful. Whatever plan one may choose to follow, remember that it must be a continuing process and that each step should be allowed to exert its influence upon performance and thinking whether it supports or calls for modification.
(a) Initial informal study might include a program of reading drawn from a wealth of material on the subject of mission. Most teachers of mission will be happy to supply book lists upon request or note can be made of the selected reading list that forms a part of the bibliography at the end of this chapter. However, at best, the reading of books on mission work will do little more than whet the appetite, provide an introduction to the many facets of mission study, and pave the way for more serious involvement. The serious student of mission will want to dig more deeply into the subject under the guidance of qualified teachers and this, of course, leads to formal study.
(b) Formal study is available to the prospective missionary through the course offerings of numerous schools and colleges. Glenn Schwartz has edited a directory containing mission course information on some 134 schools and colleges in, the United States and. Puerto Rico.18 Two hundred and ninety-seven schools and colleges are listed in the 10th edition of the Mission Handbook, Edward Dayton, editor.19
Course work affords a great deal, more to the student than he can usually gain by reading alone. Most teachers of mission courses have been missionaries and they can bring valuable, personal experiences to their classes. In bringing these experiences to the student, the teacher not only has good illustrative material but also becomes a living bridge between the idea and the reality of mission work. But even an intimate association with good literature and successful missionaries who have actually been there cannot replace first hand experience. Thus the next step is to begin getting that experience even while engaged in formal or informal study.
(c) Local experiences in personal evangelism can compliment one's academic approach and give valuable experience in leading others to Christ. Whether personal evangelism is a part of a school's curriculum, sponsored by a local church, initiated by some student group, or a purely personal project, it involves real contact with real people and duplicates many of the elements that will be found in foreign evangelism. However, in spite of its value in preparation of the prospective evangelist it is usually a domestic intra cultural experience and lacks the cross cultural elements found in a foreign field.
(d) Special seminars or summer study programs are held by various agencies for the purpose of providing simulated or actual cross-cultural experiences. It may be that in these type programs the prospective missionary will make his first real contact with his own ethnocentricism and will experience the trauma of that discovery.
This initial self discovery does not come automatically upon contact with alien cultures but through a combination of contact and study. The literature can tell him that he views others through his own cultural bias but he cannot really understand the implications of this fact until he has had the experience. On the other hand, he can have the experience but never realize his bias unless someone reveals it to him.
In the contrived experience programs, every effort is made to stimulate ethnocentric behavior, challenge it, and then subject it to thorough analysis. Though the end result is usually deeply satisfying, the process itself can be rather startling.
Such experiences are very enlightening and extremely helpful but they are, by nature, short term experiments that "just touch the hem of the garment." Such programs play an important role in missionary training but they do not produce instant experts.
(e) Apprenticeship programs are being used by many schools and churches to give, prospective missionaries "on the field experience," under the supervision of trained personnel. The apprentice missionary is a missionary in the full sense of the term. He may study language and culture and function under the constraints imposed on any new missionary but he generally has his share of the work to do and is considered by his fellow workers as a full fledged member of the mission team.
The apprentice has the advantage of supervision during his initial period on the field plus the freedom to change his mind about staying in that field or even about becoming a full time missionary. 'the apprentice can return home after his year or two and decide that he can serve better in another ministry without the stigma of failure. However, the retention rate of apprentice missionaries is very high and most of them go on to become full time career missionaries.
(f) Advanced study is frequently sought by the missionary on furlough and this later formal study can be one of the missionary's most rewarding study experiences. Against the background of a few years experience and maturity the classroom study can be especially meaningful.
2. General Areas of Study for All Missionaries.
Each training program (the informal study of books, or formal study in a school) will involve a certain selection of subjects determined by the ones who formulate the reading list or organize the curriculum. However, instead of blindly accepting whatever is available for consumption, the student would be well advised to select courses carefully. All courses have some value but there are areas that are so critical that they demand attention. It is this writer's opinion that a good introductory course a course on the Biblical basis for mission, cultural anthropology and linguistics rank very high on the priority list.
(a) An introduction to mission or principles and practices course is a must for all prospective missionaries. Such courses touch on many important areas and tend to alert the beginner to the total scope of responsibilities, liabilities, and possibilities inherent in mission work. Most courses of this type attempt to impress upon the student the seriousness of the missionary endeavor. He is brought face to face with many of the unique problems associated with cross cultural evangelism and then introduced to the tools that can help overcome those problems and lead to a successful ministry. Such tools might include (a) Biblical principles of world evangelism, (b) practical approaches that have succeeded in the theories past, (c) theories and models based upon experience and research, and (d) critiques of actual field situations.
As the name indicates, the introductory course is not an end in itself, even though it may be one of the most significant courses a missionary can study. If carefully designed, this course will be far more than a series of how-to-do-it lectures. It will honestly explore the limitations of methodologies as well as their merits, indicate the weaknesses as well as the strengths of each strategy, and, in a very forthright manner, dispel the illusion that mission work is all. fun and games.
The properly motivated student should complete the introductory course with a thirst for more knowledge and more information in a number of different areas. Then he is in a position to press on more enthusiastically into the following courses:
(b) The Biblical basis for mission (or theology of mission) is a course that should be designed to focus the prospective missionary's attention on the concept of mission as it is revealed in God's word. Such a course forces the student to come face to face with his own personal motive for wanting to do mission work, with the strengths or weaknesses of his own predetermined concepts concerning the place of mission in God's plan for man, and with new insights that can add measurably to his own spiritual growth.
Very closely associated with the study of mission theology is the study of mission philosophy. Not all missionaries nor all sponsoring churches agree as to the real meaning of mission. Some include all Christian activity under the umbrella of mission while others define it somewhat more narrowly as the purposeful persuasion of men to, become reconciled to God through Christ.
Currently, one of the most significant contributions to mission practice is the philosophy or theory of church growth.20 Church growth has become one of the most dynamic forces to influence mission work in the last fifty years. Courses are being taught in many schools and the prospective missionary would be well advised to keep himself abreast of this important influence.
(c) Cultural anthropology is regarded as an essential area of study by most mission teachers, missionary sending societies, and successful missionaries. Just as the apostle Paul was keenly aware of significant elements within the culture of the people he was trying to teach21 and did his best to identify with the different people of his world,22 today's missionary also ought to take advantage of every means of gaining insights into the cultures of the present world so that he, too, can become all things to all men. In light of this demand the prospective missionary should take advantage of the vast store of scholarly material that is being compiled by anthropologists.
It will be obvious to anyone who is aware of the complexity and depth of anthropological study that one or two courses cannot exhaust the field or make one an expert. However, one or two basic courses can alert the student to the nature of culture, train him to know what to observe when he visits another culture, introduce him to especially critical human behavior, and sensitize him to important human relationships.23 Cuthbert suggests that four requisites of a basic course in anthropology should include (1) the basic principles of anthropology, (2) simulated practice of these principles through books, films, and discussion, (3) a close examination of one's own culture, and (4) a clear understanding that completion of the course does not indicate that the student knows all about culture and people.24
Obviously, even a good course in cultural anthropology will not make one a professional anthropologist but the insights gained through such a course can alert the conscientious missionary to the importance of recognizing and intelligently responding to cultural differences. There are numerous anthropology courses which can be valuable for missionaries but at least one basic course is absolutely essential. Later on, to meet special needs, other courses can be added, i. e., Cross Cultural Communications, Anthropology and Mission, Christian Ethnotheology, Urban Anthropology, etc.
(d) Linguistics is the name given to the specific, disciplined, and informed study of the structure and functioning of human language.25 Though it may not be necessary for the prospective missionary to become a linguist, an introduction to this approach to language learning can be a valuable aid to anyone who finds it necessary to learn a second language. The linguistic approach to language learning is important because it avoids some of the weakness26 of the traditional approach and, at the same time, provides the learner with insights that render new languages less threatening and mysterious.
It is alarming to see missionaries, who have been working with people of a given nation for many years, who still know how to say little more than, "Hello ... .. Good by," and "Thank you," in the language of those people. The local population may use some English or the missionary may use interpreters but these are, at best, makeshift means of communication that severely handicap the preaching of the gospel.
One reason that many tongue-tied missionaries are in evidence centers around the American's resistance to language learning. There are exceptions but generally the American. missionary (who speaks only one language and who has not had special training) is rather inept at learning another language. The reason does not likely involve any intellectual weakness but, rather, the typical, American's unfamiliarity with languages and language learning.
Some years ago in Seoul, Korea, a very capable language teacher wag trying to get his American students to develop a "feel" for the Korean phrases they were studying by accompanying their speech utterances with a very slight but significant bow. This body gesture was used to help the students articulate the proper intonation of. the phrases. When used, the result was almost automatic and the intonation problem virtually eliminated. However, most of the students were embarrassed about speaking in a foreign language in the first place and doubly embarrassed at the thought of bowing while speaking. Thus, the exercise deteriorated into a giggling, snickering fiasco, much to the consternation of the puzzled teacher.
The reaction of this group was very similar to the reaction of a Korean farmer to his first automobile ride. He was a very intelligent and capable person, but he knew almost nothing about modern machinery. When it came time for him to leave the automobile he had no idea how to open the door. The driver told him exactly what to do but in his confusion and embarrassment he either pulled the right lever the wrong way or the wrong lever the right way.
Even the most sophisticated of us sometimes have difficulty with new car doors but due to our familiarity with automobiles and gadgets, in general, we usually get the door open with one or two false starts and no embarrassment whatsoever. In much the same manner the European or Oriental who already speaks two or more languages seems to be less ill at ease when studying another language.
A good introduction to linguistics can help a prospective missionary become familiar with the organs of articulation, the range of sounds the human voice, can make, and how these sounds are organized to produce meaningful utterances. Once this foundation is laid, language study becomes nothing more than the mastery of a tool. No longer must the language student like the farmer in the automobile, grope in embarrassed frustration for the unknown. Like the product of the modern technological age who has no trouble getting out of a strange automobile, the prepared language student can study with confidence any new language.
A course in linguistics will also help the prospective missionary avoid other problems associated with language study. Some people take language study too lightly while others consider it an impossible task. The former naively consider a foreign language something they will "get" after a few months of casual study while the latter give up before they ever start. The truth is that mastery of a second language requires a high degree of motivation and intensive study, but it can be accomplished by anyone who is willing to exercise self-discipline.
There are many factors that contribute to one's ability to learn a foreign language. Some serious students may make surprising progress while others seem to have to try harder and work longer. However, for all it is a serious business and there are no real shortcuts that bypass concentration and study. Language may well be the missionary's most difficult challenge. However, as Gleason points out, when they fail, as many do, they are deprived of their own opportunity to serve, their sponsoring church does not get its money's worth, and the mission field gets stones instead of bread.28 Language study is a must for most missionaries and an introduction in linguistics can be the prospective missionary's greatest asset.
3. Specific Areas of Study for Individual Missionaries.
To this point the suggested preparation has been virtually the same for all missionaries; however, from this point on each prospective missionary should use discretion and select areas of study that bear most directly on the type mission work he expects to do.
(a) Bookkeeping and Administration: All too frequently the missionary finds that a significant portion of his time is taken up with administrative duties including bookkeeping. A little knowledge in these fields can be very helpful.
(b) Para-medical and Survival Training: Since many missionaries are going into technically primitive areas of the world, it can be very helpful for them to have training which gives them confidence as they leave civilization and rely more and more upon God and themselves.
(c) Area Studies: Before arrival on any given field the missionary should know as much about that field as possible. MARC's Unreached People,29 numerous Country Profiles,30 as well as an abundance of anthropological studies31 represent a portion of the material of this nature, that is currently available.
(d) Historical Studies: There are historical accounts of almost all past missionary programs. Some have become widely accepted32 while others hold meaning only for members of a single religious group. These histories may be as old as Ezekiel who was sent to Judah among the Babylonians or as new as any one of the hundreds of mission reports that come from the mission fields today.
Such studies often include an emphasis on missionary biography and it is not unusual to find foreign workers who made their decision to go into foreign evangelism shortly after reading some inspirational biography. Such stories can be very inspirational but they can also be very practical as they relate real experiences and how they were handled by real people.
(e) Leadership Training: One of the newer areas of formal study involves concern for the training of converts on the mission field. Much of the institutional work which has been done over the past few decades has been the result of a desire to train local workers. Preacher or leadership training A schools have been very popular as means to this end but, today, another option is gaining in popularity. This is "leadership training by extension" where the emphasis is on taking the training to the student rather than bringing him to a formal school setting.
Obviously one could continue to list specific courses indefinitely. College catalogues are filled with numerous mission courses and new ones are appearing every day. How ever these should be enough to give the prospective missionary a feel for the vast array of courses that are available to the interested student.
1Gen. 12:1-3, Gal. 3:8.
3II Peter 3:9.
4I Pet. 1:20.
5Gal. 5-22, 23.
6T. Stanley Soltau, Facing the Field ( Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1965), p. 124.
7Harold R. Cook, An Introduction to the Study of Christian Missions (Chicago: Moody Press, 1967), p. 123.
8Jack P. Lewis, from a lecture delivered to the Summer Seminar in Missions at Abilene Christian University.
9Harold R. Cook, op. cit., p. 125.
10II Cor. 5: 18.
111 John 4:20.
13II Cor. 13:11, 1. Thess. 5:13.
141 Thess. 5:14.
16Harold R. Cook, Missionary Life and Work (Chicago: Moody Press, 1968). P. 117.
17See the "Interpersonal Relationships" section of the bibliography at the end of this chapter.
18Glenn Schwartz (ed.), An American Directory of Schools and Colleges Offering Missionary Courses (South Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 1973), 221 pages.
19Edward R. Dayton (ed.), Mission Handbook: North American Protestant Ministries Overseas (Monrovia, California: MARC, 1973), pp. 603ff.
20See Donald McGavran, How Churches Grow (New York: Friendship Press, 1957), 188 pages.
21Titus 1:12, 13 and Acts 17:28.
221 Cor. 9:19-23.
23M. Cuthbert, "Anthropology in Mission Training," Practical Anthropology, Vol. 12 (March, April, 1965), p. 120.
24Ibid., pp. 120,121.
25H. A. Gleason, Jr., "Linguistics in the Service of the Church," Practical Anthropology, Vol. 9, No. 5 (Sept.-Oct., 1962), p. 205.
26Traditional language courses involve the translation of a limited vocabulary, the conjugation of verbs, and similar exercises which contribute to one's knowledge about a given language but which do not necessarily contribute to rapid nor natural mastery of that language.
28H. A. Gleason, op. cit., p. 207.
29MARC Unreached Peoples (Monrovia, California: MARC, 1974),117 pp.
30Contact: MARC Publications, 919 N. Huntington Drive, Monrovia, California.
31George and Louise Spindler (eds.), Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology, Stanford University.
32Kenneth S. Latourette, The Nineteenth Century in Europe (New York: Harper and Brothers, Pub., 1958),498 pages.
*Allen, Roland. Missionary Methods: St. Paul's or Ours? Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1969.
*Cook, Harold R. An Introduction to the Study of Christian Mission. Chicago: Moody Press, 1967.
Cuthbert, M. "Anthropology in Mission Training." Practical Anthropology. Vol. 12 (March, April, 1965).
Dayton, Edward R. (ed.). Mission Handbook: North American Protestant Missionaries Overseas. Monrovia, California: MARC, 1973.
Gleason, H. A., Jr. "Linguistics in the Service of the Church." Practical Anthropology. Vol. 9, No. 5 (September, October, 1962).
*Hodges, Melvin L. The Indigenous Church. Springfield, Mo.: Gospel Publishing House, 1971.
Kane, J. Herbert. Missionary Candidates: How to Breed the Best. Monrovia, California: MARC, 1961.
Latourette, Kenneth S. The Nineteenth Century in Europe. New York: Harper and Brothers Pub., 1958.
Lewis, Jack P. "Shall I Speak Falsely For God." Mimeographed speech delivered to the Summer Seminar, Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas, no date.
*Lindsell, Harold. Missionary Principles and Practices. New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1955.
*McGavran, Donald. How Churches Grow. New York: Friendship Press, 1957. Soltau, T. Stanley. Facing the Field. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1965.
Schwartz, Glenn (ed.). An American Directory of Schools and Colleges Offering Mission Courses. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 1973.
Unreached Peoples. Monrovia, California: MARC, 1974.
Back, Kurt W. Beyond Words: The Story of Sensitivity Training and the Encounter Movement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972.
Bradford, et. al. T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964.
Coulson, William B. Groups, Gimmicks, and Instant Gurus: An Examination of Encounter Groups and Their Distortion. New York: Harper and Row, Pub., 1972.
Goldburg, Carl. Encounter: Group Sensitivity Training Experience. New York: Science House Inc., 1970.
Rogers, Carl R. Carl Rogers on Encounter Groups. New York: Harper and Row, Pub., 1970.
Smith, Peter B. (ed.). Group Processes. Baltimore: Penguin Books Inc., 1970.
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