A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Paul's Letter to the Galatians

Galatians 1:3-6:13


Galatians 1:3:

TEXT: "peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ"
EVIDENCE: S A P Psi 33 81 1241 three lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV NIV NEBn TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "peace from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ"
EVIDENCE: p46 p51vid B D G H K 104 614 630 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) some cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASVn NEB

OTHER: "peace from God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ"
EVIDENCE: most cop(north)

COMMENTS: Although it is quite possible that copyists moved the pronoun "our" from "Lord" to "God" to make the salutation read like those in most of Paul's other letters, a majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that pious scribes had moved "our" from "God" to "Lord Jesus Christ."

Galatians 1:6:

TEXT: "called plyou in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel."
EVIDENCE: p51 S A B K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect three lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEBn TEV
RANK: D

NOTES: "called plyou in grace to a different gospel."
EVIDENCE: p46vid G H(vid) two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB TEVn ("his grace")

NOTES: "called plyou in the grace of Jesus Christ, to a different gospel."
EVIDENCE: D 1241 two lat syr(h+)
TRANSLATIONS: none

OTHER: "called plyou in the grace of Christ Jesus, to a different gospel."
EVIDENCE: one lat cop(south)

COMMENTS: The word "Christ" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. Although it is possible that "the grace" is original and "of Christ" or "of Christ Jesus" or "of Jesus Christ" were added by copyists, the fact that the omission is supported by only part of the Western kind of ancient text makes it likely that "of Christ" is original. Copyists had a tendency to expand "Christ" by adding "Jesus" to it.

Galatians 1:8:

TEXT: "should proclaim a gospel to plyou contrary"
EVIDENCE: p51vid Sc A B D H K P 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV TEV
RANK: D

NOTES: "should proclaim a gospel contrary"
EVIDENCE: S* G* Psi two lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NIV NEB

COMMENTS: The word for "to plyou" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text following the verb "proclaim." In the evidence supporting its inclusion, it is found both both and after the verb. Although it is possible it was added from the last part of the verse, it is also possible that it was omitted to make the statement more general.

Galatians 1:15:

TEXT: "·But when God, who had set me apart"
EVIDENCE: S A D K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 Byz Lect two lat syr(h+,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: D

NOTES: "·But when the One who had set me apart"
EVIDENCE: p46 B G 2495 most lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NASV

COMMENTS: The word "God" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. Although it is quite possible that "God" was added by copyists to make the meaning clear (it being absent from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western kinds of ancient text), a majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that its inclusion by so many witnesses indicates that it is original and was accidently omitted, perhaps by a mistake of the eye (a one-letter definite article is found both before and after it).

Galatians 2:1:

TEXT: "after fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: p46 S A B C D G K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "after fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: one lat cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: Although "again" is found both before and after "went up" in the manuscript evidence favoring it, the evidence for its omission is so slight that it must be original.

Galatians 2:5:

TEXT: "·to them we did not yield submission even for a [single] hour, so that"
EVIDENCE: p46 S A B C Dc G K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p) (omit "to them") syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "·to them we yielded submission indeed for a [brief] hour, so that"
EVIDENCE: D* two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: Perhaps "not" was omitted by copyists who wanted to illustrate Paul's principle of becoming all things to all men (I Corinthians 9:20-23), but the statement without "not" does not really fit with what Paul is here saying.

Galatians 2:12:

TEXT: "·For before certain [men] came from James"
EVIDENCE: S A B C D G H(vid) K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: A

NOTES: "·For before a certain one came from James"
EVIDENCE: p46 four lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The change from the plural to the singular seems to have been made by copyists to make it fit with the following change.

Galatians 2:12:

TEXT: "but when they came"
EVIDENCE: A C Dc H K P Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "but when he came"
EVIDENCE: p46 S B D* G 33 four lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The singular "he came" is probably due to careless scribes making the person of the verb the same as the preceding and following verbs.

Galatians 4:25:

TEXT: "·Now Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia; and she"
EVIDENCE: A B D Lect syr(pal) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV TEV (omit "Now")
RANK: D

NOTES: "·For Sinai is a mountain in Arabia; and she"
EVIDENCE: S C G 1241 1739 four lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NEB (omit "For") TEV (omit "For")

OTHER: "·For Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia; and she"
EVIDENCE: K P Psi 062 33 81 104 614 630 1881 2495 Byz syr(p,h) some cop(north)

TRANSLATIONS: KJV
OTHER: "·Now Sinai is a mountain in Arabia; and she"
EVIDENCE: p46 three lat cop(south)

COMMENTS: The Greek word "For" is spelled gar which perhaps explains the omission of Hagar in some manuscripts as caused by a mistake of the eye, when copyists' eyes jumped from gar to the end of Hagar.

Galatians 4:28:

TEXT: "·Now plyou, brothers, like Isaac, are children of"
EVIDENCE: p46 B D* G 33 1739 1881 four lat syr(pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "·Now we, brothers, like Isaac, are children of"
EVIDENCE: S A C Dc K P Psi 062 81 104 614 630 1241 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV

COMMENTS: The Greek words for "plyou" and "we" were pronounced alike in later Greek. Perhaps copyists were influenced by verse 26 and 31 to understand the first person plural pronoun. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text.

Galatians 5:21:

TEXT: "·envy, drunkenness, carousing"
EVIDENCE: p46 S B 33 81 one lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: D

NOTES: "·envy, murder, drunkenness, carousing"
EVIDENCE: A C D G K P Psi 104 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV RSVn

COMMENTS: The Greek word for "envy" is spelled phthonoi and for "murder" is spelled phonoi. Although it is easy to see how a few Alexandrian copyists might have overlooked "murder" when their eyes jumped from the end of "envy" to the end of "murder," a majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that "murder" might have been borrowed by other copyists from Romans 1:29.

Galatians 6:2:

TEXT: "and so plyou will fulfill the law of Christ."
EVIDENCE: B G lat vg syr(p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: NIV NEB TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "and so fulfill the law of Christ."
EVIDENCE: S A C D K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV TEVn

OTHER: "and so plyou will fill up the law of Christ."
EVIDENCE: p46

COMMENTS: There is only one letter difference between the future indicative (text reading) and the aorist imperative (reading in the notes). Since this verb is preceded by two verbs that are in the imperative mood, copyists would be more likely to change the future indicative to the aorist imperative than vice versa.

Galatians 6:13:

TEXT: "·For even those who receive circumcision do not"
EVIDENCE: S A C D K P 33 81 104 1241 1739 some Byz five lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "·For even those who have been circumcised do not"
EVIDENCE: p46 B G Psi 614 630 2495 some Byz Lect four lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASVn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the present tense (text reading) might have been borrowed from Galatians 5:2 and 3, the evidence seems to indicate that the perfect tense (reading in the notes) was a modification introduced by copyists, perhaps first in Egypt.


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